A recording of the event can be found here:

Primary materials

Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 <https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1984/60/contents/enacted> accessed 8 June 2023
Prosecution of Offences Act 1985 <https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1985/23/contents/enacted> accessed 8 June 2023
Royal Commission on Criminal Justice Report, Cm 2263 (HMSO, 1993) <https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/271971/2263.pdf> accessed 8 June 2023
Crown Court Study by Michael Zander and Paul Henderson, Royal Commission on Criminal Justice; no.19 (HMSO, 1993) [Held at the Inner Temple Library]1996
Access to Justice: Final Report to the Lord Chancellor on the Civil Justice System in England and Wales (HMSO, 1996) <https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ukgwa/20060213223540/http://www.dca.gov.uk/civil/final/contents.htm> accessed 8 June 2023
The Review of the Crown Prosecution Service, Cm 3972 (HMSO, 1998) <https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/259808/3972.pdf> accessed 8 June 2023
Review of Civil Litigation Costs: Final Report (Stationery Office, 2009) <https://www.judiciary.uk/wp-content/uploads/JCO/Documents/Reports/jackson-final-report-140110.pdf> accesed 8 June 2023

secondary materials


Hodgson, J. S. ‘Prosecution in Adversarial and Inquisitorial Procedures: The Weakening of Professional Autonomy’ in Research Handbook of Comparative Criminal Justice ed. Nelkin, D. and Hamilton, C. (Elgar, 2022)Iliadis, M. Adversarial Justice and Victims’ Rights: Reconceptualising the Role of Sexual Assault Victims (Routledge, 2020)Jolowicz, J. A. On Civil Procedure (Cambridge University Press, 2000) [Held at the Inner Temple Library]Murschetz, V. ‘The Expert Witness in the Inquisitorial Justice System Compared with the Adversarial Systems of the UK’ in
The Expert Witness, Forensic Science, and the Criminal Justice Systems of the UK (CRC Press, 2019)
Starmer, K. and Walker, C. Justice in Error (Blackstone Press, 1993) [Held in the Inner Temple Library]Starmer, K. and Walker, C. Miscarriages of Justice: A Review of Justice in Error (Blackstone Press, 1999) [Held in the Inner Temple Library]Zuckerman, A. ‘Truth Finding and the Mirage of Inquisitorial Process’ in Evidential Legal Reasoning: Crossing Civil Law and Common Law Traditions ed. Beltrán, J. F. (Cambridge University Press, 2022)


Access Denied: The State of the Justice System in England and Wales in 2022 (The Bar Council, 2022) <https://www.barcouncil.org.uk/uploads/assets/88a28ac3-5866-4d73-99ecb9b05c03c815/Bar-Council-Access-denied-November-2022.pdf> accessed 8 June 2023Agmon, S. 'Undercutting Justice – Why Legal Representation Should Not Be Allocated by the Market (Politics, Philosophy & Economics, (2021) Vol. 20, Issue 1) <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1470594X20951886> accessed 8 June 2023Ahmed, M. ‘The Adversarial System and Prejudice’ (Law Society’s Gazette, 10 June 2022) <https://www.lawgazette.co.uk/legal-updates/the-adversarial-system-and-prejudice-/5112763.article> accessed 8 June 2023Bowcott, O. ‘Inquisitorial System May be Better for Family and Civil Cases, says top judge’ (The Guardian, 4 May 2014) <https://www.theguardian.com/law/2014/mar/04/inquisitorial-system-family-civil-cases-judge-lord-thomas> accessed 8 June 2023Bowcott, O. ‘Only One-Quarter of Britons Believe Legal System is Fair’ (The Guardian, 2 December 2015) <https://www.theguardian.com/law/2015/dec/02/only-one-quarter-of-britons-believe-legal-system-is-fair-survey-shows> accessed 8 June 2023Burton, M., Evans, R. and Sanders, A. ‘Vulnerable and Intimidated Witnesses and the Adversarial Process in England and Wales (International Journal of Evidence & Proof, (2007) Vol. 11, No. 1) [Available via HeinOnline]Dryland, C. and Diaz-Rainey, J. ‘Comparing Litigation in the US versus England & Wales’ (OUT-LAW, 27 September 2022) <https://www.pinsentmasons.com/out-law/analysis/comparing-litigation-in-the-us-versus-england-and-wales> accessed 8 June 2023Finkelstein, R. ‘The Adversarial System and the Search for Truth’ (Monash University Law Review, (2011) Vol. 36, 135) [Available via HeinOnline]Gollop, K. ‘Inquisitorial Inquests and Barrister-Blaming’ (Counsel, August 2019) <https://www.counselmagazine.co.uk/articles/inquisitorial-inquests-and-barrister-blaming> accessed 8 June 2023Gordon, J. & Gordon, A. The Role and Rights of Victims of Crime in Adversarial Criminal Justice Systems: Recommendations for Reform in England and Wales(Victims Commissioner, 17 December 2020) <https://victimscommissioner.org.uk/document/the-role-and-rights-of-victims-of-crime-in-adversarial-criminal-justice-systems-recommendations-for-reform-in-england-and-wales/> accessed 8 June 2023Guerra, A. et al. ‘Deterrence, Settlement, and Litigation Under Adversarial Versus Inquisitorial Systems’ (Public Choice, 2022) <https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11127-022-01001-4> accessed 8 June 2023Hamer, D. & Edmond, G. ‘Forensic Science Evidence, Wrongful Convictions and Adversarial Process (University of Queensland Law Journal, (2019) Vol. 38, No. 2) [Available via HeinOnline]Higgins, A. ‘What Price Are We Willing to Pay for the Dream of Equal Justice?’ (Legal Studies, (2022), Vol. 42, Issue 1) <https://academic.oup.com/ojls/article/42/1/325/6373528> accessed 8 June 2023Hodgson, J. S. ‘The Future of Adversarial Criminal Justice in 21st Century Britain’ (North Carolina Journal of International Law & Commercial Regulation, (2010) Vol. 33 No. 2) [Available via HeinOnline]Johnston, E. 'The Adversarial Defence Lawyer: Myths, Disclosure and Efficiency - A Contemporary Analysis of the Role in the Era of the Criminal Procedure Rules' (International Journal of Evidence & Proof, (2019) Vol. 24, Issue 1) <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1365712719867972> accessed 8 June 2023Jolowicz, J. A. ‘Adversarial and Inquisitorial Models of Civil Procedure’ (International and Comparative Law Quarterly, (2003) Vol. 52, No. 2) [Held at the Inner Temple Library]Kirchengast, T. ‘Victim Legal Representation and the Adversarial Criminal Trial: A Critical Analysis of Proposals for Third-Party Counsel for Complianants of Serious Sexual Violence’ (International Journal of Evidence & Proof, (2021) Vol. 25, Issue 1) <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1365712720983931> accessed 8 June 2023Landsman, S. ‘A Brief Survey of the Development of the Adversary System’ (Ohio State Law Journal, (1983) Vol. 44, No. 3) <https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/159591916.pdf> accessed 8 June 2023Mulcahy, L. & Teeder, W. ‘Are Litigants, Trials and Precedents Vanishing After All?’ (Modern Law Review, (2022) Vol. 85, No. 2) <https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1468-2230.12685> accessed 8 June 2023Regan, D. ‘Coroners’ Inquests: Defining the Inquisition’ (Solicitor’s Journal, (2016) Vol. 160, Issue 23) <https://www.stjohnschambers.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Coroners%E2%80%99-inquests-defining-the-inquisition.pdf> accessed 8 June 2023Reshaping Justice, A Speech by Lord Thomas of Cwmgiedd, Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, 3 March 2014 <https://www.judiciary.uk/wp-content/uploads/JCO/Documents/Speeches/lcj-speech-reshaping-justice.pdf> accessed 8 June 2023Sorabji, J. ‘Austerity’s Effect on English Civil Justice’ (Erasmus Law Review, (2015) Issue 1) <https://www.elevenjournals.com/tijdschrift/ELR/2015/4/ELR-D-15-00023> accessed 8 June 2023Spencer, J. R. ‘’Adversarial vs Inquisitorial Systems: Is There Still Such a Difference?’ (International Journal of Human Rights, (2016) Vol. 20, Issue 5)Tague, P. W. ‘Faulty Adversarial Performance by Criminal Defenders’ (King’s College Law Journal, (2001) Vol. 12, No. 2) [Available via HeinOnline]Thibaut, J., Walker, L and Lind, E. A. ‘Adversary Presentation and Bias in Legal Decisionmaking’ (Harvard Law Review, (1972) Vol. 86, No. 2) [Held at the Inner Temple Library]Thomas, L. ‘Does the Adversarial System Serve Us Well?’ (Gresham College, 9 March 2023) <https://www.gresham.ac.uk/watch-now/adversarial-law> accessed 8 June 2023Winson, L. ‘Court of Appeal Allows Second Local Authority Appeal Over “Island-Hopping” Judgment, Criticises Family Court Judge for Google Search’ (Local Government Lawyer, 4 June 2023) <https://www.localgovernmentlawyer.co.uk/child-protection/392-children-protection-news/54058-court-of-appeal-allows-second-local-authority-appeal-over-island-hopping-judgment-criticises-family-court-judge-for-google-search> accessed 8 June 2023

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